# Physics

## MOTION

### Graph Matching (Physics) (40 min.)

Students will analyze the motion of a student walking across the room using the Motion Detector. They will also predict, sketch and test position and velocity vs. time kinematics graphs.

### Back and Forth Motion (Physics) (40 min.)

The Motion Detector is used in this lab that qualitatively analyzes the motion of objects that move back and forth. Comparisons are made to catalog objects that exhibit similar motion. Objects analyzed include pendulums, dynamics carts, students jumping, springs, and bouncing balls.

### Projectile Motion (Physics) (40 min.)

Measure the velocity of a rolling ball using photogates and computer software and then apply concepts from physics to predict the impact point of the ball in projectile motion.

### Newton's Second Law (Physics) (40 min.)

A Force Sensor and Accelerometer will let students measure force on a cart simultaneously with the carts acceleration. Students will compare graphs of force vs. time and acceleration vs. time. They will analyze a graph of force vs. acceleration to determine the relationship between force, mass and acceleration.

### Newton's Second Law (Physical Science) (40 min.)

In this experiment, students will use a computer-interfaced Motion Detector to determine acceleration and make conclusions about the relationship between mass and acceleration.

### Newton's Third Law (Physics) (40 min.)

Observe the directional relationship and time variation between force pairs using two force sensors. After collecting data and analyzing the results, students will explain Newton’s third law in simple language.

### Simple Harmonic Motion (Physics) (40 min.)

Using the Motion Detector, students will measure the position and velocity of an oscillating mass and spring system as a function of time. They will then compare the observed motion to a mathematical model of simple harmonic motion.

### Pendulum Periods (Physics) (40 min.)

This simple experiment measures the period of a pendulum as a function of amplitude, length, and bob mass using the Photogate.

## ACCELERATION AND GRAVITY

### Modern Galileo Experiment (Physics) (40 min.)

Determine if Galileo’s assumption of uniform acceleration is valid based on the use of a Motion Detector to measure the speed of a ball down an incline.

### Determining g on an Incline (Physics) (40 min.)

Students will use the motion detector to measure acceleration and determine the mathematical relationship between the angle of an inclined plane and the acceleration of a ball rolling down the ramp. They will also use extrapolation to determine the value of free fall acceleration and determine if this is valid. Students can also compare the results for a ball with the results for a low-friction dynamics cart.

### Picket Fence Free Fall (Physics) (40 min.)

This is a very straight forward lab in which students will measure the acceleration of a freely falling body (g) to better than 0.5% precision using a Picket Fence and a Photogate with the Vernier software.

### Ball Toss (Physics) (40 min.)

Predictions for the graphs of position, acceleration and velocity vs. time of tossing of a ball will be made and then students will collect data and analyze the graphs of position, acceleration, and velocity vs. time. The best fit line will be determined for the position and velocity vs. time graphs, while mean acceleration will be calculated from the acceleration vs. time graph.

### Ball Toss with Video Analysis (Physics) (40-60 min.)

Same as above with a video component: Logger Pro software can insert videos of your experiment into files. You can then synchronize the video of the balls motion to the graphs produced. When you replay the experiment, the data and video can all be viewed together. You will use a digital camera to capture your motion as the ball is tossed. How will the velocity vs. time and acceleration vs. time graphs look as the motion of the ball changes?

### Bungee Jump Accelerations (Physics) (40 min.)

In this experiment, students will investigate the accelerations that occur during a bungee jump. An Accelerometer will be used to analyze the motion of a toy bungee jumper and determine where acceleration is at a maximum and a minimum.

### Atwood's Machine (Physics) (40 min.)

This lab takes a look at a classic experiment in physics. Using a Photogate, students will measure acceleration and determine the relationships between the masses on an Atwood’s machine and the acceleration.

## FRICTION AND RESISTANCE

### Static and Kinetic Friction (Physics) (40 min.)

Students will be able to measure the force of static friction using a Dual-Range Force Sensor and will determine the relationship between force of static friction and the weight of an object. They will also use a Motion Detector to determine that the coefficient of kinetic friction depends on weight.

### Air Resistance (Physics) (40 min.)

Using the Motion Detector, students will observe the effect of air resistance on falling coffee filters and determine how the terminal velocity of a falling object is affected by air resistance and mass. They will then choose between two competing force models.

## ENERGY

### Energy of a Tossed Ball (Physics) (40 min.)

Using a ball and a Motion Detector, students will see how the total energy of the ball changes during free fall by measuring the change in the kinetic and potential energies as a ball moves during free fall.

### Energy in Simple Harmonic Motion (Physics) (40 min.)

In this lab activity, slotted masses and springs are used in coordination with a Motion Detector to examine the energies involved in simple harmonic motion and to test the principle of conservation of energy.

### Energy in Simple Harmonic Motion with Video Analysis (Physics) (40 min.)

Same as above with video component: Logger Pro software can insert videos of your experiment into files. You can then synchronize the video of the balls motion to the graphs produced. When you replay the experiment, the data and video can all be viewed together. You will use a digital camera to capture your motion as the ball is tossed.

### Work and Energy (Physics) (40 min.)

A Motion Detector and Force Sensor will be used to measure position and force and to determine the work done on an object. Students will also measure velocity and calculate kinetic energy. Lastly, they will be able to compare the work done on a cart to its change in mechanical energy.

### Momentum, Energy and Collisions (Physics) (40 min.)

Students will use the dynamics cart track to observe collisions between two carts, testing for conservation of momentum. They will also measure energy changes during different types of collisions and classify collisions as elastic, inelastic, or completely inelastic.

## PRESSURE

### Underfoot Pressure (40 min.)

Students will use various forms of technology to obtain data on foot pressure, foot area, and force. Forms include use of a Vernier force plate, forensic developing paper and ink and a Novel pressure platform.

## SOUND

### Sound Waves and Beats (Physics) (40 min.)

Measure the frequency, period and amplitude of sound waves from tuning forks and observe beats between the sounds of two tuning forks.

### Tones, Vowels and Telephones (Physics) (40 min.)

Use our microphones to analyze the frequency components of tuning forks and of the human voice. You can also record the overtones produced with the tuning forks and examine how a touch tone phone works with regard to predominant frequencies.

### Speed of Sound (Physics) (40 min.)

Students will measure how long it takes sound waves to travel down a long tube in order to determine the speed of sound and compare the speed in air to the accepted value.

## LIGHT

### Polarization of Light (Physics) (40 min.)

Measure the transmission of light through two polarizing filters as a function of the angle between their axes and compare it to Malus's Law.

### Light, Brightness and Distance (Physics) (40 min.)

Determine the mathematical relationship between the intensity of a light source and the distance from the light source.

### Reflectivity of Light (Physical Science) (40 min.)

Use a computer interfaced light sensor to measure reflected light and calculate the percent reflectivity of various colors

### Polaroid Filters (Physical Science) (40 min.)

Use a computer interfaced light sensor to measure the intensity of transmitted light and study the transmission of light by Polaroid filters.

### Emission Spectra (40 min.)

In this experiment, students use a Vernier Spectrometer (SpectroVis) to measure the emission spectrum of helium, hydrogen, krypton and neon spectral tubes.

### Transmittance of Theatrical Lighting Filters (40 min.)

In this experiment, students use a Vernier Spectrometer (SpectroVis) to measure and analyze the visible light transmittance spectrum of various samples of theatrical lighting filters. Students will compare and contrast the spectra of lighting filters with the published information.

## CIRCUITS

### Ohm's Law (Physics) (40 min.)

Students will determine the mathematical relationship between current, potential difference and resistance in a simple circuit. They will also compare the potential vs. current behavior of a resistor to that of a light bulb.

## SIMPLE MACHINES

### First Class Levers, Pulleys, Inclined Planes (Physical Science) (40 min.)

Use a computer to measure resistance force and effort force. Use this information to calculate the mechanical advantage of each lever. Use a computer-interfaced Force Sensor to measure force of single and double pulley systems. Calculate the actual and mechanical advantage as well as determine efficiency. Measure the force needed to lift an object and the force needed to pull the same object up an inclined plane using a computer-interfaced Force Sensor. Calculate and compare the work done and the efficiency.

## Tension and the Isosceles Triangle (40 min.)

Students will collect force data for a hanging mass on a string using force sensors to analyze the concept of tension and to study vector forces in a static situation.

## ASTRONOMY

### Starry Night High School (40 min. lessons included)

Starry Night High School makes it easy to teach astronomy with a comprehensive space science curriculum solution written for teachers by teachers. It offers innovative lesson plans correlated to 9th through 12th grade standards, hands-on activities, software guided explorations, DVD movie content and assessment tests. Starry Night computer exercises, hands on activities and thought-provoking discussion questions encourage students to explore advanced topics such as the life cycles of stars.

## PHYSICS CSI

### The Case of the Clumsy Construction Worker (40 min.)

Solve the case involving a toolbox accident by using a motion detector to obtain velocity vs. time graphs for the simulated scene. Use graphical analysis to determine acceleration from graphs. Examine how a lab model simulates a real-life situation and apply the principles of projectile motion to solve the case.

## AMUSEMENT PARK PHYSICS

Labs developed specifically for use of Vernier equipment at Knoebels Amusement Park.

### The Phoenix

Topics include acceleration, potential and kinetic energy and conservation of energy.

### The Galleon

Topics include centripetal acceleration, barometric pressure- elevation.

### The Carousel

Topics include centripetal acceleration, vertical acceleration and graphical analysis.

### The Bumper Cars

Topics include electrical work, efficiency, elastic and inelastic collisions.

### The Log Flume

Topics include potential and kinetic energy and deceleration.

### The Italian Trapeze

Topics include angular speed, period of rotation, tension and centripetal force.

### The Skloosh

Topics include potential and kinetic energy and deceleration.

### Health Considerations

Topics include pulse, respiration, blood pressure, EKG and symptoms.

Or…customize your own lab using our equipment and expertise!

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