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Biology

Requirements for the Major in Biology. The Bachelor of Science degree in biology requires 60 semester hours in biology, chemistry and physics with grades of C- or better in biology. The Bachelor of Science degree includes an introductory sequence, biology distribution requirements (in cell and molecular biology, organismal biology, and ecology and evolution), and other requirements with an emphasis in research (Group A) or added academic instruction (Group B). In addition, all students must complete an experiential learning requirement.

Semester Hours View Full Course Catalog >>

16        Introductory Sequence

4 BIOL-101 Ecology and Evolution
4 BIOL-102 Cell Biology and Genetics
4 BIOL-205 Organismal Biology
4 BIOL-220 Biostatistics
or MATH-108 Introduction to Statistics
or MATH-180 Statistical Methods

16        Biology Distribution Requirements

3        Cell and Molecular Biology

          Choose from one of the following:

BIOL-300 Developmental Biology
BIOL-306 Cell Biology
BIOL-316 Molecular Biology
BIOL-400 Immunology

3        Organismal Biology

          Choose from one of the following:

BIOL-302 Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy
BIOL-310 Animal Physiology
BIOL-312 Microbiology
BIOL-320 Exercise and Extreme Physiology
BIOL-328 Natural History of Early Vertebrates
BIOL-404 Plant Physiology
BIOL-440 Behavioral Neuroendocrinology
BIOL-455 Functional Neuroanatomy

3        Ecology

          Choose from one of the following:

BIOL-324 Animal Behavior
BIOL-326 Invertebrate Zoology
BIOL-332 Population Biology
BIOL-408 Aquatic Ecology
BIOL-460 Winter Ecology of Vertebrates
ECOL-201 Community and Ecosystems Ecology

3        Three laboratory courses

4        At least two different courses from

BIOL-550 Explorations in Biology

or      BIOL-560 Interdisciplinary Explorations in Biology

or      BIOL-157 The Biology of Women

Biology courses at the 300 level or above may be used to satisfy biology elective credit requirements.

Other Requirements: Based upon their qualifications and career goals, students may apply to be accepted in a collaborative research program (Group A), or they may elect to complete Group B.

Group A: 60 semester hours total

4 BIOL-510 Student Research I
4 BIOL-511 Student Research II

Group B: 60 semester hours total

4 BIOL-350 Investigative Problems in Biology

4        Biology elective courses at the 200 level or above

20      Corollary Courses

4        General Chemistry I - choose from: CHEM-101, CHEM-103 or CHEM-111

4        General Chemistry II - choose from: CHEM-102, CHEM-104 or CHEM-112

4        CHEM-221 Organic Chemistry I

8        Choose 8 additional semester hours from the following courses:

          Introductory Physics I - choose from: PHYS-202, PHYS-203 or PHYS-204

          Introductory Physics II - choose from: PHYS-205 or PHYS-206

CHEM-222 Organic Chemistry II
CHEM-231 Quantitative Analysis
CHEM-314 Survey of Biochemistry
CHEM-422 The Biochemistry of Nucleic Acids
CHEM-423 Biochemistry Nucleic Acids Laboratory
CHEM-424 The Biochemistry of Metabolism
CHEM-426 The Biochemistry of Proteins and Enzymes
CHEM-427 Biochemistry of Proteins and Enzymes Laboratory
CHEM-429 Biochemistry of Metabolism Laboratory
CHEM-311 Analytical Chemistry

Minor in Biology. Students minoring in biology complete 20 semester hours, including BIOL-101 Ecology and Evolution, BIOL-102 Cell Biology and Genetics, and BIOL-205 Organismal Biology. Students choose additional biology courses at the 200, 300 or 400 level. Although BIOL-500, BIOL-502, BIOL-550 and BIOL-560 may apply to the minor, other courses at the 500 level may not be taken for minor credit.  At least one laboratory course is required in addition to BIOL-101, BIOL-102, and BIOL-205. 

BIOL-010 Issues in Biology

Emphasizes analysis of biological problems relevant to the human experience and presents basic biological concepts in a variety of contexts. Subject matter might include medicine, environmental issues, ecology, molecular biology, physiology and others. 4 SH. 3 lecture hours. 3 laboratory hours. CC: Scientific Explanations. If the topic being offered is Human Heredity or Brain and Behavior, the course is also Team Intensive. If the topic being offered is Spice of Life, the course is also Interdisciplinary and Team Intensive.

BIOL-020 Human Sexuality and Reproduction

A science-based exploration of human sexuality and reproduction, which involves consideration of sexual anatomy, physiology, social norms, gender, perception and behavior. From a social science perspective, sexuality is a key organizing factor for cognition, emotion and relationships. Biologically, sexuality represents the means for propagating our species and serves important evolutionary and survival functions. It is a complex topic that requires broad integrated thinking across disciplines. Prerequisite: Junior standing. 4 SH. 3 lecture hours. 3 laboratory hours. CC: Diversity Intensive, Interdisciplinary and Scientific Explanations.  

BIOL-101 Ecology and Evolution

Examination of descent with modification from a common ancestor, evidence for evolution, processes by which evolutionary changes occur, and how ecological interactions drive such changes. Course content will be linked to the five core concepts of biology (evolution; structure and function; information flow; energy transformations; and systems). Topics include the link between genotype and phenotype as it relates to natural selection and evolutionary change; mechanisms of microevolution; speciation processes; population growth and regulation; species interactions; and ecosystem structure and function. 4 SH. 3 lecture hours, 3 laboratory hours. CC: Scientific Explanations, Team Intensive.

BIOL-102 Cell Biology and Genetics

Examination of life at the cellular level, focusing on the five core concepts of biology (evolution; structure and function; information flow; energy transformations; and systems). Topics include cell structure and function, protein structure and function as the link between genotype and phenotype, information flow from gene to protein, inheritance of traits in eukaryotic organisms, membrane structure and transport, energetics on the cellular level, cell cycle control and cancer. 4 SH. 3 lecture hours, 3 laboratory hours.

BIOL-157 The Biology of Women

Examines the genetic and biological basis of gender difference, the unique biology of the female body and women's health care issues. Topics include female reproductive anatomy and the menstrual cycle, pregnancy and birth, developmental differences in the sexes, and reproductive technologies. Also covers problems such as breast cancer, premenstrual syndrome and osteoporosis. Includes the role of women in the health care system, as well as biology and science in general. Not for biology major or minor credit. Same as WMST-250. 4 SH. CC: Diversity Intensive.

BIOL-201 Genetics

A workshop-style course that examines Mendelian, population, molecular and quantitative genetics. Laboratory topics include the structure and function of nucleic acids, bioinformatics, and the use of molecular techniques to study human disease and evolution. Prerequisite: BIOL-102 or instructor's permission. 4 SH. 3 lecture hours, 3 laboratory hours. CC: Diversity Intensive, Team Intensive.  

BIOL-202 Systematic Biology

Systematic Biology is designed to introduce students to representatives of the kingdoms of life (e.g., prokaryotes, eukaryotic protists, fungi, animals and plants) in an evolutionary framework through an integrated lecture-laboratory experience. Using multiple methods, including light and electron microscopic examinations, students will have the opportunity to observe structures and other characters that bring diversity to all kingdoms of life. Students will use appropriate mathematical methods to model and infer evolutionary relationships between living organisms by molecular phylogenetics. Drawing on experiences in previous courses of the introductory sequence, students will explain the observations and results from the levels of molecules to ecosystems. These observations, results and explanations will provide the basis for journal-style writing projects. Same as ECOL-202. Prerequisite: BIOL-201 or ECOL-201 or instructor's permission. 4 SH. 3 lecture hours, 3 laboratory hours. CC: Team Intensive, Writing Intensive.

BIOL-205 Organismal Biology

Organismal Biology will focus on the level of the organism as the biological scale through which to build the student's understanding of five core concepts in biology: evolution, information flow, structure-function relationships, energy transformations and systems biology. This course is designed as an introductory course, meaning that it introduces fundamental concepts that will be elaborated on and reinforced at a more sophisticated and deeper level in the more advanced courses that are taken as distribution requirements in the junior and senior year. Prerequisites: BIOL-101 and BIOL-102 or permission of the instructor. 4 SH. 

BIOL-220 Biostatistics

Biostatistics will focus on the collection and analysis of biological data. The course is designed to introduce students to the fundamental concepts of experimental and sampling design, as well as quantitative hypothesis testing. Some equations will be covered in the course; however, the emphasis will be on interpretation and presentation of statistical results. These concepts will be reinforced in upper-level biology/ecology/neuroscience courses taken by students to fulfill distribution requirements during their junior and senior years. Same as BIOL-220. Prerequisites: Sophomore standing and either BIOL-101, BIOL-102, or ECOL-100. 4 SH. 4 lecture hours. CC: Analytical Thought.

BIOL-250 STEM First-Year Seminar

This seminar is taken by students in the STEM Scholars' Program in the spring of their first year as a way of continuing to work together to build the STEM cohort, learn about STEM careers, and explore their own interests and aptitudes regarding future career options. Not for major or minor credit. 1 SH. 

BIOL-300 Developmental Biology

Examines embryo development, focusing on cellular and regulatory mechanisms that guide the process. Topics include the events of development from fertilization through organogenesis in a range of animal systems from sea urchins through mammals. Prerequisite: BIOL-102. 3 SH. CC: Ethics Intensive.

BIOL-301 Developmental Biology Laboratory

An investigative approach to the study of animal development, emphasizing cellular and molecular techniques. Students work in small groups to conduct and analyze self-designed experiments with invertebrate embryos. Prerequisite: BIOL-102. 1 SH. 3 laboratory hours. CC: Ethics Intensive.

BIOL-302 Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy

Examines the evolutionary relationships among the vertebrate classes, using comparative morphological evidence. Uses an organ system approach to the study of anatomy and considers unique adaptations of individual vertebrates. Prerequisite: BIOL-205. 3 SH.

BIOL-303 Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy Laboratory

Organ-based study of representative vertebrates, including shark and cat dissections. Prerequisite: BIOL-205. 1 SH. 3 laboratory hours.

BIOL-304 Biogeodiversity

Explores the influences of geology (abiotic factors), environment (including climate), and place on the evolution and diversity of life. Students investigate multiple issues posed by the science and technology of the diversity of life on this planet. Particular issues include changing views of systematic relationships of living things, how many species occur on earth, and how to establish effective public policy guidelines for protection of life's diversity.  4 SH. 3 lecture hours, 3 laboratory hours. CC: Team Intensive, Writing Intensive.

BIOL-306 Cell Biology

Examines the molecular aspects of cell structure and function and the molecular processes that regulate cell behavior. Emphasizes experimental and problem-based approaches, and includes information on the cell biology of human disease. Prerequisite: BIOL-102. 3 SH.

BIOL-307 Cell Biology Laboratory

Introduces the laboratory techniques commonly used in the study of cell biology. Includes labs on the isolation and characterization of proteins and nucleic acids. Prerequisite: BIOL-102. 1 SH. 3 laboratory hours.

BIOL-310 Animal Physiology

General and comparative physiology. Emphasizes membrane, neural, muscular and homeostatic physiology. Prerequisite: BIOL-205. 3 SH.

BIOL-311 Animal Physiology Laboratory

A laboratory in general and comparative physiology. Emphasizes physiological phenomena in such organ systems as the heart, muscle, membrane, neural and kidney. Uses several different vertebrate animals. Prerequisite: BIOL-205. 1 SH. 3 laboratory hours.

BIOL-312 Microbiology

An introduction to the morphology, physiology and genetics of microorganisms. Discusses the roles of microorganisms in the environment and in human disease. Prerequisite: BIOL-205. 3 SH.

BIOL-313 Microbiology Laboratory

Emphasizes basic bacteriologic techniques, including staining, culturing and identification. Laboratory may not be taken without BIOL-312. Prerequisite: BIOL-205. 1 SH. 3 laboratory hours.

BIOL-314 Advanced Genetics

This workshop-style course will explore advanced topics in the expression, evolution and inheritance of genetic material, as well as the modern techniques that are used in their analysis.  It will also consider the ethical issues that arise from the generation and potential uses of the resulting knowledge.  It will build upon the basic molecular and Mendelian genetics concepts taught at the introductory level. Prerequisite: BIOL-102 or permission of instructor. 4 SH. 3 lecture hours. 1 laboratory hour. CC: Ethics Intensive.

BIOL-316 Molecular Biology

Examines the structure and function of DNA and RNA of prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Topics include recombinant DNA technology, genomics and bioinformatics. Prerequisite: BIOL-102. CHEM-221 strongly recommended. 3 SH.

BIOL-317 Molecular Biology Laboratory

Investigates the structure and function of DNA through techniques of molecular biology. Topics include agarose gel electrophoresis, DNA hybridization and gene cloning. Prerequisite: BIOL-102. 1 SH. 3 laboratory hours.

BIOL-319 Advanced Genetics

This workshop-style course will explore advanced topics in the expression, evolution and inheritance of genetic material, as well as the modern techniques that are used in their analysis.  It will also consider the ethical issues that arise from the generation and potential uses of the resulting knowledge.  It will build upon the basic molecular and Mendelian genetics concepts taught at the introductory level. Prerequisite: BIOL-102 or permission of instructor. 4 SH. 3 lecture hours. 1 laboratory hour. CC: Ethics Intensive.

BIOL-320 Exercise and Extreme Physiology

A study of physiological processes in humans related to exercise and participation in sports. This course also examines the effects and repercussions of exposure of the human body to extreme environments, such as those experienced by scuba divers, climbers and high-altitude pilots. Prerequisite: BIOL-205. 3 SH.

BIOL-321 Exercise and Extreme Physiology Laboratory

Investigates the physiological basis of human responses to exercise and extreme environments with an emphasis on neural muscular, respiratory and cardiovascular mechanisms. Uses some animal models. Prerequisite: BIOL-205. 1 SH. 3 laboratory hours.

BIOL-324 Animal Behavior

Explores the adaptive value of animal behavior with an emphasis on theory and hypothesis testing using examples drawn from primary literature. Major topics include sexual selection, mating systems, parental care, sociality, foraging theory, antipredator behavior, game theory and communication framed within an evolutionary context. Prerequisite: BIOL-101 or ECOL-100. 3 SH.

BIOL-325 Animal Behavior Laboratory

Field and laboratory techniques in behavioral data collection, experimental design and statistical analysis. Hypothesis development and testing emphasized. A portion of the grade is based on an independent research project. Laboratory may not be taken without BIOL-324. Prerequisite: BIOL-101 or ECOL-100. 1 SH. 3 laboratory hours.

BIOL-326 Invertebrate Zoology

An introduction to evolutionary themes and functional approaches to invertebrate animal biology. Course covers a broad survey of the invertebrate phyla. Within the coverage of each group, unique aspects of morphology, physiology, ecology and behavior are discussed in light of the selective forces that have favored their evolution. Prerequisite: BIOL-205. 3 SH.

BIOL-327 Invertbrate Zoology Laboratory

An introduction to invertebrate phyla and subgroups with emphasis on form and functional morphology, organ systems, life history, ecology and behavior. Course includes dissections, examination of preserved material, demonstrations and observations of living animals. In addition, students organize an invertebrate collection based on local fauna. Laboratory may not be taken without BIOL-326. Prerequisite: BIOL-205.  1 SH. 3 laboratory hours.

BIOL-328 Natural History of Early Vertebrates

This course will focus on early vertebrates' life history with great emphasis on systematics, evolution, phylogeny, morphology, reproduction, development and zoogeography. Plate tectonics and paleontology will have a pivotal role in explaining patterns and processes in the natural history of this unique subset of vertebrates, otherwise known as "Ichthyoids." This upper-level biology/ecology course is designed to be taken by students to fulfill distribution requirements during their sophomore, junior and/or senior years. Prerequisite: BIOL-205 or BIOL-202. 3 SH. 3 lecture hours.

BIOL-329 Natural History of Early Vertebrates Laboratory

This course will be an examination of patterns and processes in the natural history of this unique subset of vertebrates, otherwise known as "Ichthyoids." Through the different laboratories students will be introduced to field and laboratory methodologies of identifying Pennsylvania early vertebrates, specimen handling, collecting techniques, dissection, preparation, and field sign recognition. This upper-level biology/ecology course is designed to be taken by students to fulfill distribution requirements during their sophomore, junior and/or senior years. Prerequisite: BIOL-205 or BIOL-202. 1 SH. 3 laboratory hours.

BIOL-332 Population Biology

This course will introduce students to the biotic and abiotic factors that influence the size and trajectory of populations. Topics of the course will include understanding demographic rates, density independent and density dependent population growth rates, density, population dynamics of structured and non-structures populations, competitions, and predation. Prerequisite: BIOL-101 or ECOL-100. 3 SH.

BIOL-333 Population Biology Laboratory

This course will introduce students to methods used in estimating demographic rates and population parameters, such as age structure. Concepts fundamental to experimental design and statistical analysis of data will be stressed. Laboratory cannot be taken without BIOL-332. Prerequisite: BIOL-101 or ECOL-100. 1 SH. 3 laboratory hours.

BIOL-350 Investigative Problems in Biology

Offered for a capstone experience for biology majors in Group B. Provides an authentic research experience based in the area of expertise of the supervising faculty. Students will learn important laboratory and/or field approaches to collect novel data in order to answer research questions. Course elements include experimental design, data collection and analysis, and presentation in oral and written formats. Prerequisites: Senior standing and BIOL-101, BIOL-102, BIOL-205, and either BIOL-220 or MATH-108 or MATH-180 or permission of the instructor. 4 SH. Capstone.  CC: Oral Intensive, Writing Intensive.

BIOL-400 Immunology

Investigates how the immune system defends vertebrate organisms against invasion by pathogenic microorganisms. Discusses recognition of antigens and interactions between components of the immune system from a molecular perspective. Prerequisite: BIOL-102. 3 SH.

BIOL-401 Immunology Laboratory

Techniques used in immunological studies. Topics include antibody purification, immunofluorescence and Western blot analysis. Laboratory cannot be taken without BIOL-400. Prerequisite: BIOL-102. 1 SH. 3 laboratory hours.

BIOL-404 Plant Physiology

The physiology of photosynthetic organisms. Includes photosynthesis, translocation, metabolism, mineral nutrition, photoperiodism, hormones, growth and development. Prerequisite: BIOL-205. 3 SH.

BIOL-405 Plant Physiology Laboratory

A series of experiments designed to illustrate the unique physiology of photosynthetic organisms. Prerequisite: BIOL-205. 1 SH. 3 laboratory hours.

BIOL-408 Aquatic Ecology

The ecology of freshwater ecosystems. Emphasizes biota of freshwater and their relationships with physical and chemical components of lakes, streams and reservoirs. Same as ECOL-408. Prerequisite: BIOL-101 or ECOL-100. 3 SH. 

BIOL-409 Aquatic Ecology Laboratory

Field laboratory in aquatic ecology techniques. Topics include physical and chemical measurements and the identification and enumeration of phytoplankton, zooplankton, aquatic plants and benthic organisms. Same as ECOL-409. Prerequisite: BIOL-101 or ECOL-100. 1 SH. 4 laboratory hours.

BIOL-422 The Biochemistry of Nucleic Acids

This course integrates information from the disciplines of biology and chemistry to explore nucleic acid function and metabolism. In-depth discussions cover the forces behind DNA/DNA, DNA/RNA, and DNA/protein interactions as they apply to DNA structure and metabolism, RNA function and metabolism, protein synthesis, and gene regulation. Same as CHEM-422. Prerequisite: CHEM-222. Strongly recommended: BIOL-426/CHEM-426. 3 SH. 3 lecture hours. 

BIOL-423 Biochemistry Nucleic Acids Laboratory

Exploration of nucleic acids, including methods of isolation, purification, identification and analysis. Same as CHEM-423. Prerequisite: CHEM-222. 1 SH. 3 laboratory hours.

BIOL-424 The Biochemistry of Metabolism

This course covers the structure and function of major biomolecules such as carbohydrates and lipids and their role in metabolism. Energy metabolism and biomolecule biosynthesis and degradation are emphasized. Same as CHEM-424. Prerequisite: CHEM-222. Strongly recommended: BIOL-426/CHEM-426. 3 SH. 3 lecture hours. CC: Team Intensive.

BIOL-426 The Biochemistry of Proteins and Enzymes

This course focuses on the structure of proteins, the thermodynamics of protein folding, enzyme catalytic mechanisms and enzyme kinetics. This course also introduces the field of bioinformatics, the use of computer databases to determine relationships between nucleic acid sequence, protein structure and protein function. Same as CHEM-426. Prerequisite: CHEM-222. 3 SH. 3 lecture hours.

BIOL-427 Biochemistry of Proteins and Enzymes Laboratory

This lab explores enzyme kinetics and inhibition, as well as methods of isolation, purification, identification, and analysis of proteins and enzymes. This lab is designed to provide technical skills necessary for biochemical research. Same as CHEM-427. Prerequisite: CHEM-222. 1 SH. 3 laboratory hours.

BIOL-429 Biochemistry of Metabolism Laboratory

This lab explores metabolic function and metabolites. The lab focuses on the isolation, purification, identification and analysis of metabolites. Same as CHEM-429. Prerequisite: CHEM-222. 1 SH. 3 laboratory hours. CC: Team Intensive.

BIOL-440 Behavioral Neuroendocrinology

This course deals with the interrelationships among hormones, the brain and behavior. The role of the nervous system and hormones in the development and regulation of behavior, as well as how experience can regulate neuroendocrine physiology, will be examined. This course puts special emphasis on generating and testing hypotheses based on knowledge gained from reviewing the primary literature. Specific topics covered include the endocrine regulation of reproductive behavior, aggressive behavior, biological rhythms, energy balance, stress, learning and memory. Prerequisite: BIOL-205. Corequisite: BIOL-441. 3 SH. CC: Writing Intensive.

BIOL-441 Behavioral Neuroendocrinology Laboratory

This course investigates the experimental methodology used by behavioral neuroendocrinologists to investigate the interrelationships among hormones, the brain and behavior. The course provides hands-on learning about laboratory techniques that examine neuropeptides, hormones, brain structures and behavior, as well as proper use of animals in research, experimental design and statistical analysis. Hypothesis development and testing is emphasized, and a portion of the grade is based on an independent research project. Prerequisite: BIOL-205. Corequisite: BIOL-440. 1 SH. 3 laboratory hours. CC: Writing Intensive.

BIOL-450 Advanced STEM Seminar

This seminar is taken by students in the STEM Scholars' Program in the second, third and fourth years as a way of continuing to work together to build the STEM cohort, learn about STEM careers, and explore their own interests and aptitudes regarding future career options. Not for major or minor credit. Prerequisite: BIOL-250. 0.5 SH. 

BIOL-455 Functional Neuroanatomy

This course is a detailed look at the sophisticated cellular and molecular mechanisms in the nervous system and how these mechanisms provide the foundation for circuits and functional neuroanatomical structures capable of generating complex behaviors and physiological functions. This course connects functional cellular and anatomical units of the nervous system to behaviors typically addressed by the field of psychology, such as learning, motivation, addiction and psychological disorders. The initial material focuses on the molecular structure and function of neurons and then builds upon this foundation by progressively assembling the functional neuroanatomical structures of the nervous system and considering the complex behaviors that these structures generate. Prerequisites: BIOL-102, PSYC-101 and junior standing or instructor's permission. 4 SH. 3 lecture hours, 3 laboratory hours. CC: Interdisciplinary.

BIOL-460 Winter Ecology of Vertebrates

This course will survey all amniote vertebrates and their winter adaptations. It will focus on physiological ecology, evolution, morphology, reproduction and development of reptiles, birds and mammals. This upper-level biology/ecology course is designed to be taken by students to fulfill distribution requirements during their sophomore, junior and/or senior years. Prerequisite: BIOL-101 or ECOL-100. 3 SH. 3 lecture hours.

BIOL-461 Winter Ecology of Vertebrates Laboratory

This course will survey all amniote vertebrates and their winter adaptations. Through the different laboratories students will be introduced to field and laboratory methodologies of identifying Pennsylvania early vertebrates, specimen handling, collecting techniques, dissection, preparation and field sign recognition. This upper-level biology/ecology course is designed to be taken by students to fulfill distribution requirements during their sophomore, junior and/or senior years. Prerequisite: BIOL-101 or ECOL-100. 1 SH. 3 laboratory hours.

BIOL-500 Topics in Biology

Varying topics of interest to students and instructor. Possible topics include genetic engineering advances in embryology, plant products, reproductive physiology and stress ecology. Prerequisites: Prior course in general topic area and instructor's permission. Variable credit.

BIOL-501 Seminar in Biology

Weekly one-hour meetings in which students and staff report and discuss current biological research literature. Senior biology majors in Group B track require one semester. 2 SH. Capstone.

BIOL-502 Biology Internship

Career investigation for junior and senior biology majors. May be repeated once. A written report of the internship will be required. Prerequisite: First two years of the biology major program. 1 SH. Minimum of 5 contact hours.

BIOL-504 Independent Study in Biology

Investigation of a specific topic or problem in biology under the guidance of an appropriate faculty member. 1-4 SH.

BIOL-510 Student Research I

Introduces students to methods and techniques of biological research in the context of a collaborative research project. Required for students in the Group A track. Prerequisite: Instructor's permission. 4 SH. 16 contact hours. Capstone.

BIOL-511 Student Research II

Collaborative research with an emphasis on presentation of data and explanation of results. Required for students in the Group A track. Prerequisite: Instructor's permission. 4 SH. 16 contact hours. Capstone. CC: Oral Intensive, Writing Intensive.

BIOL-550 Explorations in Biology

Explores salient issues in the biological sciences. Prerequisites: BIOL-101 or BIOL-102, junior standing or instructor's permission. 2-4 SH.

BIOL-560 Interdisciplinary Explorations in Biology

Explores salient issues in the biological sciences from an interdisciplinary perspective. Prerequisites: Sophomore standing and either BIOL-101 or BIOL-102 or instructor's permission. 2-4 SH. CC: Interdisciplinary.

Secondary Teaching Certification. Coursework required by the state of Pennsylvania for admission to the teacher certification program includes successful completion of ENGL-100 Writing and Thinking or equivalent course, at least 3 semester hours in British or American literature, at least 6 semester hours of mathematics coursework (or other courses which satisfy the Central Curriculum Analytic Thought requirement), and at least one 40-hour externship.

Education requirements for secondary education are EDUC-101 Introduction to Education and Society, EDUC-102 Historical and Philosophical Foundations of Education, EDUC-250 Educational Psychology, EDUC-260 Introduction to Special Education, EDUC-270 Instruction of Exceptional Students, EDUC-330 Technology in Education, EDUC-350 English Language Learners: Theory and Instruction, EDUC-380 Instructional Design, EDUC-424 Methods of Curriculum, Instruction, and Assessment in Teaching Science, EDUC-479 Principles of Learning and Teaching in Secondary Education, EDUC-483 Differentiated Instruction and Classroom Management in Secondary Education, and the EDUC-500 Student Teaching package (EDUC-501, EDUC-502, EDUC-503, and EDUC-600).

In addition, secondary education biology students complete all of the usual requirements for the biology major.  When secondary education students satisfy the "choose 8 additional semester hours from the following courses" portion of the corollary course requirement, they must do so by taking PHYS-204-205 Introductory Physics I-II.