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Sociology & Anthropology Department

Learning goals:

  • Develops a critical understanding of the relationships between individuals, culture and social structures.
  • Improves abilities to speak, write and present information clearly to a variety of audiences.
  • Develops an understanding of the links between theory and methods in the production of knowledge.
  • Analyzes and critiques the dynamic nature of contemporary social and cultural worlds.

Requirements for Degrees. The Department of Sociology and Anthropology offers a major in sociology, a major in anthropology, a minor in sociology and a minor in anthropology. It also offers, in collaboration with the Department of Education, a course of study that leads to social studies teacher certification.

Students in the Department of Sociology and Anthropology may, with the approval of the adviser and/or department head, complete more than one major and/or minor in the department.

Majors Offered

Anthropology

Sociology

Minors Offered

Anthropology

Sociology

ANTH-110 Introduction to Archaeology

The discipline of archaeology involves the study of past societies, their practices and behaviors deduced by the analysis and interpretation of their material remains. It is therefore our only access to the three million years of human history before writing. This course is an introduction to method and theory in anthropological archaeology, with consideration of selected case studies. The course begins with an introduction to the history of the discipline and then focuses on archaeological methods and theory to provide a background to the practice of archaeology. Students will learn concepts, methods and techniques required in archaeological excavation and the analysis of material remains. They will have the opportunity to research and discuss problems in anthropological archaeology. The latter half of the course will take the students through a review of some of the major archaeological discoveries of modern times. This will provide a unique opportunity to review past surveys and excavations and to evaluate and critique past efforts in light of current archaeological theory and practice. 4SH. CC: Social Interactions.

ANTH-152 Public Culture

This course is an anthropological introduction to public culture in the U.S. It takes public culture to be: a public circulation of sensibilities, identities, dreams, styles, discourses and forms of power; and a way of life enacted and given form in the practices of everyday life and in institutions, laws, social movements, physical and social spaces, and expressive forms. Students will be introduced to key terms and theories in contemporary anthropology and their application in the study of representation; historical imagination; gender, sexuality and identity politics; and nationalism, citizenship and globalization. 4 SH. CC: Diversity, Social Interactions, Writing Intensive.

ANTH-162 Introduction to Anthropology

This course is an introduction to the field of anthropology. Specifically, the course introduces students to the ways in which anthropologists have thought about and investigated human diversity. We inquire into what it is that makes us human; the unique role culture plays in our humanity; the relationships of culture, language and biology; and how anthropologists have studied material culture in past and present civilizations using the tools and theoretical paradigms of archaeology. Students explore these questions through the study of ethnographies and a textbook. 4 SH. CC: Diversity, Social Interactions.

ANTH-220 Magic, Witchcraft and Religion

Examines anthropological concepts of magic, witchcraft and religion in a cross-cultural context. Drawing on ethnography, anthropological theory, history and film, the class explores the nature of magic, witchcraft and religion; the relations among them; and the ways in which they interact with other social formations, for example, gender, politics and economics. Countries studied have included South Africa, India, Haiti and the United States. Same as RELI-220. 4 SH. CC: Diversity, Social Interactions.

ANTH-222 Life During Wartime

Exploration of key understandings and discourses about war and the intersection of anthropology and violent conflict. The course begins with an introduction to anthropological theory and methods, then examines the role of anthropology in both understanding and responding to war and violent conflict, and then turns its attention to literature and materials drawn or arising from current wars and violent conflicts in the world. The course focuses on popular and scholarly materials addressing current conflicts, including texts, journal and magazine articles, documentary and ethnographic films, television and popular films, and newspapers. The class seeks to understand how we understand war and what role it plays in cultural practice. Prerequisite: ANTH-162 or SOCI-101 or instructor's permission. 4 SH. CC: Diversity Intensive, Writing Intensive.

ANTH-227 Native America North of Mexico

This course is an interdisciplinary introduction to the histories and cultures of the indigenous peoples north of Mexico. Topics to be considered include cultural diversity, colonial history and federal Indian policy, land use patterns, identity and ethnicity, myth and ritual, contemporary issues, representations of Native Americans in the dominant culture, and the role of cultural revitalization and innovation in the negotiation of contemporary community survival. Course readings represent a variety of perspectives, including historical, ethnographic, ecological and literary. Prerequisite: ANTH-162, ANTH-152 or SOCI-101 or instructor's permission. 4 SH. CC: Diversity.

ANTH-235 Qualitative Research Methods

This course is designed to develop students' competence as social researchers. We will cover both theoretical issues-like the epistemology and ethics of qualitative research—and practical ones—the nuts and bolts of the research process, from data collection to analysis. The course will focus on the connection between researchers' theoretical goals and the practical resources and constraints of the research process. Students will be trained in some of the common forms of qualitative social research: ethnography, interviews, content analysis, case studies and the comparative method. Students will also be required to employ qualitative methods to collect and analyze original data, both for (near-weekly) short written assignments and a 15-20 page final research paper. Prerequisites: Sophomore standing and at least one introductory course in sociology or anthropology. Same as SOCI-235. 4 SH. CC: Ethics Intensive, Writing Intensive.

ANTH-237 Museums and Anthropology

This course will explore key interrelationships between museums, anthropology and the practices of representation. Students will be introduced to the history of museums and will also be given the analytical tools to read museums and exhibitions as cultural texts. The course focuses on the production and meanings of public museums and other exhibitionary spaces. We will pay close attention to issues of representation in anthropological and other arenas, to how museums communicate information about cultural-historical processes and events, and to the formation of ethnographic and other subjects. While anthropology and museum studies are the course's focus, we will not restrict our readings to those disciplines and modes of representation alone but will consider other disciplinary perspectives and offerings. Prerequisites: Sophomore standing and ANTH-162 or SOCI-101 or instructor's permission. 4 SH. CC: Interdisciplinary, Team Intensive. 

ANTH-245 Quantitative Research Methods

This course is intended to introduce students to common methods used in quantitative social science research. It is intended to help us conceptualize a research problem and how to collect evidence to address that research problem. Students will learn how to conduct basic quantitative social science research, evaluate relevant evidence and determine the best method to be used based on theoretical and practical considerations. The course also focuses attention on such issues as the time dimension, sampling design and ethical issues when conducting quantitative social research. Finally, we use SPSS and series of datasets to test and demonstrate our knowledge of the respective statistical procedures. Upon completion of this course, students should be better able to critically evaluate the quantitative research they encounter in their social science coursework and in the mass media, as well as be able to design a basic quantitative research project. Prerequisite: Sophomore standing. Same as SOCI-245. 4 SH. CC: Ethics Intensive.

ANTH-301 Topics in Anthropology

Intermediate study of selected topics. Topics vary and depend on student and instructor interest. Possibilities include the anthropology of modernity, cross-cultural perspectives on gender and sexuality, and drugs and culture. Prerequisite: SOCI-101, ANTH-162 or instructor's permission. 2-4 SH.

ANTH-310 National, Transnational and Diasporic Communities

Considers the nature of belonging in the world today. Who is "at home"? Who is displaced/out of place? Begins with theories of the nation and anthropological research on national communities and nation-building, then turns to a consideration of those considered outsiders to the nation-state, i.e., diasporic, transnational and refugee communities. Addresses culture as it is formed by the globalization of capital, commodities, media, literacy, and international political and religious movements. Topics covered may include Jewish, Palestinian, African and Chinese diasporas; refugees in Tanzania and in Europe; and Indian intellectuals in the United States. Prerequisite: ANTH-162, SOCI-333 or instructor's permission. 4 SH. CC: Writing Intensive.

ANTH-311 Regulating Bodies: Food, Sex, Drugs and the Economy

What is the proper relation between the state and its citizens? Should states merely ensure the basic safety of citizens, or should they somehow promote their well-being? How should decisions about what constitutes safety or well-being be made? Through a study of regulation, this course considers how economics, politics, ethics and aesthetics inform life in modern liberal democracies. We begin by establishing a theoretical framework for our study and then turn to four instances in which states seek to intervene in or regulate the lives of citizens, namely the economy, drugs, food and sex. We will examine issues such as the recent financial meltdown, medical marijuana, food safety and Internet pornography. Prerequisite: Sophomore standing. 4 SH. CC: Interdisciplinary, Oral Intensive, Social Interactions and Team Intensive.

ANTH-312 History and Culture of Jewish Cuisines

Using anthropological approaches to the study of food, this course examines the meanings and uses of various Jewish cuisines as they developed in diverse regions and historical periods. We will consider the laws of kashrut and their modern interpretations, the social history of traditional Jewish foods, the literary development of Jewish cookbooks, and literary and cinematic representations of Jewish cuisines and dining. Underlying our study will be questions concerning how class, gender, faith, ethnicity, aesthetics and politics inform Jewish foodways. Because cooking and eating are frequently done in the company of others, much of our work will be collaborative. Same as JWST-312. 4 SH. CC: Diversity, Team Intensive.

ANTH-322 Visual Anthropology: Imagining the Other

Explores key interrelationships between image-making and ethnographic discovery and representation. Students are introduced to the history of ethnographic film and photography and are also given the analytical tools to read popular films and photographs as cultural texts. The course focuses on the production, representation and use of images to communicate information about cultural-historical processes, events and subjects. Prerequisite: ANTH-162, SOCI-101 or instructor's permission. 4 SH.

ANTH-341 Family and Kinship

A comparative study of family and kinship. Covers the structures and functions of family and kinship in different cultures. Emphasizes historical and contemporary changes in knowledge and practice focused on family, marriage, procreation and kinship in the United States, with particular emphasis on the cultural construction of kinship, the naturalization of identity and difference, the politics of recognition, and new reproductive technologies. Prerequisite: ANTH-162 or SOCI-101. Same as SOCI-341. 4 SH. CC: Diversity Intensive, Writing Intensive.

ANTH-360 Religious Fundamentalisms in the Modern World

This course examines religious beliefs, practices and ways of life that have come to be labeled "fundamentalist." The course attends in particular to their emergence in the modern world and the ways in which they critically engage secular convictions about morality, aesthetics and epistemology. The focus of the course is on Protestant fundamentalism and the Islamic Revival, but, depending on student interest, the class may also consider "ultra-orthodox" Judaism or Hindu nationalism. Prerequisite: One of the following: ANTH-162, ANTH-220, SOCI-101, SOCI-102, a 100-level religious studies course or instructor's permission. Same as RELI-360. 4 SH. CC: Diversity Intensive, Social Interactions, Writing Intensive.

ANTH-400 History of Anthropological Theory

Surveys major anthropological theories (e.g., evolutionism, functionalism, structuralism, symbolism and postmodernism) and theorists (e.g., Malinowski, Radcliffe-Brown, Lévi-Strauss, Geertz and Clifford). Examines how ideas about culture have changed over time. Takes a critical perspective by locating both theories and theorists within national and historical frameworks. Prerequisite: ANTH-162. 4 SH. CC: Historical Perspectives.

ANTH-413 Race, Ethnicity and Minorities

Focuses on race and ethnic relations in contemporary society and popular understandings of race and ethnicity in the United States. Explores the boundaries and markers for membership in an ethnic, racial or minority group. Specifically, this course regards race as a social construct that has significance for structural opportunities, experiences, worldviews, and conceptions of self and others. The course investigates the designations "race," "ethnicity" and "minorities," and locates them in foundational and current tensions concerning power and identity. Prerequisite: ANTH-162 or SOCI-101. Same as SOCI-413. 4 SH. CC: Diversity, Oral Intensive, Social Interactions, Writing Intensive.

ANTH-500 Seminar

Research workshop that fulfills the capstone requirement for majors. Prerequisites: ANTH/SOCI-235 or ANTH/SOCI-245 and two courses in anthropology or sociology, at least one of which has been taken at the 300 level or above. SOCI-311 or ANTH-400 recommended. 4 SH. Capstone. 

ANTH-501 Independent Research

Supervised readings and writings in advanced fields of anthropological study. Prerequisites: ANTH-162, three courses in anthropology, a minimum GPA of 3.00 in departmental courses and instructor's permission. 1-4 SH. Capstone. May fulfill the capstone requirement with permission of the department head and when taken for at least 2 semester hours. Students not majoring or minoring in sociology or anthropology who wish to use ANTH-501 for their capstone must also have successfully completed ANTH/SOCI-235 or ANTH/SOCI-245, receiving a C-or higher. 

ANTH-510 Internship in Anthropology

Individual student work in an appropriate setting. Open only when positions are available. 1-8 SH.

SOCI-101 Principles of Sociology

Methods and approaches of scientific analysis applied to contemporary cultures and societies. Includes socialization, individual and group interaction, major social institutions, social organizations, social change, and collective behavior. 4 SH. CC: Diversity, Social Interactions.

SOCI-102 Social Problems

Basic concepts and principles of sociology applied to significant social problems. Examines social disorganization, cultural conflicts and personal deviations associated with the stress of industrialization, urban life and bureaucracy. 4 SH. CC: Social Interactions.

SOCI-202 Black Feminism I

Black feminism is the study of how gender, race and class issues are inextricably linked to oppression. Black feminism goes beyond mainstream feminisms and sees itself as a collective social movement. This course is primarily an activist response to intersecting oppressions that subordinate black women and others in terms of race, gender, class, sexuality, nation and the need for autonomy in the face of the privileged. Politics not only concerns personal experiences, however challenging and courageous, but must address larger agendas that go beyond individual temperament, choices and placement. There are no formal prerequisites for this course. 4 SH. CC: Diversity.

SOCI-206 Gendered Bodies and Social Control

Gender roles are delineated by the norms and behaviors that an individual is expected to perform in society. Such roles change over time. This course examines the social construction of gender, the mechanisms through which society controls "gendered" bodies, and how gender intersects with race, ethnicity, class, disability, sexuality, age and other dimensions of identity. Normative behavior and performance, group sexual misconduct, sexual politics and living with apparent contradiction in regards to gender are key topics. Prerequisite: SOCI-101, ANTH-162 or SOCI-102. 4 SH. CC: Diversity Intensive.

SOCI-210 Caribbean Culture and Society

This course considers the history, politics, economics and culture of the people of the Caribbean area. It focuses on issues of self-identity and expression within the context of hegemonic European values and institutions. Prerequisite: SOCI-101 or ANTH-162. 4 SH. CC: Diversity Intensive, Writing Intensive.

SOCI-235 Qualitative Research Methods

This course is designed to develop students' competence as social researchers. We will cover both theoretical issues-like the epistemology and ethics of qualitative research-and practical ones-the nuts and bolts of the research process, from data collection to analysis. The course will focus on the connection between researchers' theoretical goals and the practical resources and constraints of the research process. Students will be trained in some of the common forms of qualitative social research: ethnography, interviews, content analysis, case studies and the comparative method. Students will also be required to employ qualitative methods to collect and analyze original data, both for (near-weekly) short written assignments and a 15-20 page final research paper. Prerequisites: Sophomore standing and at least one introductory course in sociology or anthropology. Same as ANTH-235. 4 SH. CC: Ethics Intensive, Writing Intensive.

SOCI-245 Quantitative Research Methods

This course is intended to introduce students to common methods used in quantitative social science research. It is intended to help us conceptualize a research problem and how to collect evidence to address that research problem. Students will learn how to conduct basic quantitative social science research, evaluate relevant evidence and determine the best method to be used based on theoretical and practical considerations. The course also focuses attention on such issues as the time dimension, sampling design and ethical issues when conducting quantitative social research. Finally, we use SPSS and series of datasets to test and demonstrate our knowledge of the respective statistical procedures. Upon completion of this course, students should be better able to critically evaluate the quantitative research they encounter in their social science coursework and in the mass media, as well as be able to design a basic quantitative research project. Prerequisite: Sophomore standing. Same as ANTH-245. 4 SH. CC: Ethics Intensive.

SOCI-255 Crime and Justice

This course explores the dimensions, causes, costs and correlates of the crime problem in the U.S. and considers the uses and limitations of the criminal justice system in dealing with it. To do this, the course is organized around three interdisciplinary literatures: criminology, law and society, and criminal justice studies. Focusing on issues of lawmaking, law breaking and state response to crime, students will review and critique classical and contemporary approaches to the study of these phenomena; identify a range of theoretical approaches and empirical findings in the literatures identified above; and assess the strengths and limitations of contemporary crime control policies in light of accumulated empirical evidence. Prerequisite: SOCI-101, SOCI-102 or ANTH-162. 4 SH.

SOCI-301 Topics in Sociology

Intermediate study of selected topics. Topics vary and depend on student and instructor interest. Possibilities include social policy analysis, sociology of dissent, juvenile delinquency and sex roles. Prerequisite: SOCI-101, ANTH-162 or instructor's permission. 2-4 SH.

SOCI-311 Sociological Theory

Western social theory from Comte to the present with emphasis on recent developments. Considers major schools, including positivism, conflict theory, symbolic interactionism, functionalism, social exchange theory, critical theory, phenomenological theory and postmodernism. Prerequisite: Three courses in sociology. 4 SH.

SOCI-315 Social Stratification in Contemporary Society

This course examines factors that contribute to social stratification in contemporary society. Specifically, the course looks at three dimensions of social stratification, namely the economic, political and ideological dimensions and interaction of race, class and gender in this process. Topics include theories of social stratification, occupational prestige and mobility, segregation, corporate welfare, social welfare, and the ideology of legitimization. Prerequisites: Sophomore standing and SOCI-101, SOCI-102 or ANTH-162. 4 SH. CC: Diversity Intensive, Interdisciplinary.

SOCI-316 Social Justice

Social Justice is a team-taught course focusing on the multiple forms of oppression that occur in any given society. The distribution of various advantages and disadvantages can be affected by capitalistic systems, greed, personal intention, social and/or political agendas, and even compromise. In this course, we will study the changing dynamics of oppression, earned and unearned privileges, and competing ethical and social theories of social justice and their interaction with race, ethnicity, nationality, ability, gender, class and sexuality. Students will have the opportunity to complete social justice projects requiring their collaborative engagement to identify and understand strategies for social transformation in areas as diverse as access to technology, globalization and ethics. Prerequisite: SOCI-101, ANTH-162 or SOCI-102 or instructor's permission. 4 SH. CC: Ethics Intensive, Team Intensive.

SOCI-333 Development, Globalization and Society

A study of the relationship between economic development paradigms, institutions and groups in society. The course focuses on international economic relationships, world order, and the resultant social and political conflict. More specifically, this course examines how global economic development policy since the 1960s has influenced relations between states, major institutions, organizations and social groupings in both the developed and developing world. Same as POLI:333. Prerequisite: Junior standing and either SOCI-101 or ANTH-162. 4 SH. CC: Interdisciplinary.

SOCI-341 Family and Kinship

A comparative study of family and kinship. Covers the structures and functions of family and kinship in different cultures. Emphasizes historical and contemporary changes in knowledge and practice focused on family, marriage, procreation and kinship in the United States with particular emphasis on the cultural construction of kinship, the naturalization of identity and difference, the politics of reproduction and new reproductive technologies. Prerequisite: SOCI-101 or ANTH-162. Same as ANTH-341. 4 SH. CC: Diversity Intensive, Writing Intensive.

SOCI-350 Punishment and Society

This course develops students' ability to understand and critique modern penal practices and to interrogate the relationship of punishment to criminal behavior, the rendering of justice, the promotion of public safety and the management of risk. In addition to examining the structure, practices and legal foundation of corrections in the United States, students will be exposed to a range of scholarship examining the social, moral, economic, political, ideological and historical contexts of punishment in the West, with an eye toward understanding how penal practices came to be as they are, their social implications and cultural meanings. Review and discussion of these materials will develop students' appreciation for the depth and complexity of the topic, as well as their ability to link punishment practices with broader sociocultural conditions and worldviews. Prerequisite: SOCI-101 or ANTH-162. SOCI-311 is recommended but not required. 4 SH.

SOCI-374 Social Work

Introduces and exposes students to the various aspects of social work and social welfare. Includes examples of casework, group work, community organizations and a combination of current practices. Explores how society provides services to meet human needs through public, voluntary and combined efforts. Prerequisite: SOCI-101 or PSYC:101. 4 SH.

SOCI-405 Law and Society

An introduction to the sociology of law. Upon successful completion of this course, students should be able to understand the manner in which sociologists study law and empirically analyze relevant dynamics of law and law-related phenomena in a variety of social settings. Successive sections of this course will focus on: classical theoretical contributions to the sociology of law; selected modern approaches to the sociology of law; and an array of empirical themes of law and law-related processes and structures to which the sociological theories will be applied. Empirical topics include, but are not necessarily limited to, law and social structure; law and culture; notions of legality, legitimacy and legal consciousness; the legal profession; law, identity and inequalities; international and human rights law; and the impact of globalization on concepts and practices of law and legal change. Prerequisites: SOCI-101 or ANTH-162 and at least one other 200- or 300-level course in sociology or anthropology. Prerequisite: Sophomore standing. 4 SH. CC: Interdisciplinary, Oral Intensive.

SOCI-410 Economic Sociology

This course looks at the factors that contribute to social stratification in the contemporary United States, as well as some dimensions of global social stratification. Students may find this course challenging because they are continually affected by social inequalities but are not encouraged to think about them. More specifically, this course will look at three dimensions of social stratification, namely the economic, political and ideological dimensions and the interaction of race, class and gender in this process. The course will explore the continued debate over inequality and the extent of income and wealth inequality in the United States and its causes and consequences, as well as the causes and consequences of global inequality. Prerequisites: Sophomore standing, SOCI-101 or ANTH-162 or SOCI-102, or instructor's permission. 4 SH. CC: Interdisciplinary.

SOCI-413 Race, Ethnicity and Minorities

Focuses on race and ethnic relations in contemporary society and popular understandings of race and ethnicity in the United States. Explores the boundaries and markers for membership in an ethnic, racial or minority group. Specifically, this course regards race as a social construct that has significance for structural opportunities, experiences, worldviews and conceptions of self and others. The course investigates the designations "race," "ethnicity" and "minorities," and locates them in foundational and current tensions concerning power and identity. Prerequisite: SOCI-101 or ANTH-162. Same as ANTH-413. 4 SH. CC: Diversity, Oral Intensive, Social Interactions, Writing Intensive.

SOCI-500 Seminar

Research workshop that fulfills the capstone requirement for majors. Prerequisites: SOCI/ANTH-235 or SOCI/ANTH-245 and two courses in sociology or anthropology, at least one of which has been taken at the 300 level or above. SOCI-311 or ANTH-400 recommended. 4 SH. Capstone. 

SOCI-501 Independent Research

Supervised readings and writings in advanced fields of sociological study. Prerequisites: SOCI-101, three courses in sociology, a minimum cumulative GPA of 3.00 in departmental courses and instructor's permission. 1-4 SH. Capstone. May fulfill the capstone requirement with permission of the department head and when taken for at least 2 semester hours. Students not majoring or minoring in sociology or anthropology who wish to use SOCI-501 for their capstone must also have successfully completed SOCI/ANTH-235 or SOCI/ANTH-245, receiving a C- or higher.

SOCI-510 Internship in Sociology

Individual student work in an appropriate setting. Open only when positions are available. 1-8 SH.

SOCI-570 Practicum

Supervised field work in selected social work agencies. Students will keep a log, meet with a faculty member to discuss work and write a paper. Prerequisites: Junior or senior standing, relevant coursework and the department's permission. 4 SH.

SOCI-571 Practicum

Supervised field work in selected social work agencies. Students will keep a log, meet with a faculty member to discuss work and write a paper. Prerequisites: Junior or senior standing, relevant coursework and the department's permission. 4 SH.

John J. Bodinger de Uriarte

Department: Sociology/Anthropology
Associate Professor of Anthropology

Emailbodinger@susqu.edu
Phone570-372-4759

Dave Ramsaran, Ph.D.

Department: Provost
Director of Institutional Effectiveness

Emailramsaran@susqu.edu
Phone570-372-4757

Shari Jacobson, Ph.D.

Department: Sociology/Anthropology
Associate Professor of Anthropology

Emailjacobson@susqu.edu
Phone570-372-4754

Michael Smyth, Ph.D.

Department: Sociology/Anthropology
Associate Professor of Sociology

Emailsmyth@susqu.edu
Phone570-372-4694

Apryl Williams

Department: Sociology/Anthropology
Assistant Professor of Sociology

Emailwilliamsaa@susqu.edu
Phone570-372-4758

Salvatore D'Angelo

Department: Sociology/Anthropology
Visiting Lecturer Sociology

Emaildangelos@susqu.edu

Crystal VanHorn

Department: Provost
Academic Assistant

Emailvanhorn@susqu.edu
Phone570-372-4196

Honors. The departmental honors program recognizes outstanding academic performance in the major with departmental honors. To graduate with departmental honors in sociology or anthropology, candidates must:

  • Have a GPA of 3.50 or above in the major and 3.25 or above overall,
  • Secure the recommendation of the department faculty to pursue honors,
  • Write a senior thesis or equivalent paper based on departmental seminars, and
  • Sit for an oral honors examination.